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During Muslim Spain, and emerging from the Guadalentín Valley, the Aspuña mountain range was already known as a relevant landmark. With a progressive increase of human settlements and the utilisation of resources from the mountains. Inaccessibility of this range was no longer a fact. Together with traditional activities, such as the management of Pozos de la Nieve –from the early 16th century to the advent of the first ice factory in Totana in 1924-, other kind of activities were carried out, for instance: shepherding, felling for coal production, ships construction, mining, enlargement of cultivation areas, etc.

All these actions turned Sierra Espuña into a cleared and almost desert-like area. In the late 19th century, the forest engineer Ricardo Codoníu, together with José Musso and Juan Ángel de Madariaga undertook the reforestation of nearly 5,000 hectares.

The result is a landscape which is currently abundant in pines and narrow ravines where honeysuckles, ash trees, willows and elms grow. Today, Sierra Espuña is, at European level, a model of hydrological and forest restoration.